Kondroitiin on keemiline ühend, mis kuulub mukopolüsahhariididesse. Keywords: Glycans, Dietary plant-derived polydisperse polysaccharide supplementation, Salivary sIgA, Inflammatory chemokines, Marathon, Strenuous exercise Background In recent years, there has been a significant increase of participants in ultra-endurance races such as marathons and ultramarathons.
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Received Nov 9; Accepted Mar 8. Copyright © The Author s.
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This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background Extreme exercise may alter the innate immune system. Glycans are involved in several biological processes including immune system regulation. However, limited data regarding the impact of glycan supplementation on immunological parameters after strenuous exercise are available.
We aimed to determine the impact of a standardized polysaccharide-based multi-ingredient supplement, Advanced Ambrotose© complex powder AA on salivary secretory Immunoglobulin A sIgA and pro- and anti-inflammatory protein levels before and after a marathon in non-elite runners.
Methods Forty-one male marathon runners who completed the Saliva and blood samples were collected the day before the marathon and two days after the end of the race. Biochemical parameters, including C-reactive protein, cardiac biomarkers, and blood hemogram were also evaluated. Results Marathon runners who did not receive the AA supplement experienced a decrease of salivary sIgA and pro-inflammatory chemokines Gro-alpha and Gro-beta after the race, while runners with Kateharja liigeste koor supplementation showed lower levels of anti-inflammatory chemokines Angiogenin.
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Gro-alpha and Gro-beta salivary levels were lower before the race in the AA group and correlated with blood leukocytes and platelets. Conclusions Changes in salivary sIgA and inflammatory chemokines, especially Gro-alfa and Gro-beta, were observed in marathon runners supplemented with AA prior to the race.
These findings suggested that AA may have a positive effect on immune response after a strenuous exercise. Keywords: Glycans, Dietary plant-derived polydisperse polysaccharide supplementation, Salivary sIgA, Inflammatory chemokines, Marathon, Strenuous exercise Background In recent years, there has been a significant increase of participants in ultra-endurance races such as marathons and ultramarathons. In the United States alone, marathon runners have increased from 25, in to almostin [ 18 ].
Competing in very strenuous events imposes severe metabolic stress and causes acute responses that may negatively alter the immune system [ 17 ].
A high level of physical demand during such events induces a wide range of metabolic changes and causes micro-injuries in the muscles and other tissues. This physical demand increases the migration of white blood cells to the sites of injury, and induces acute phase inflammatory reactions [ 51628 ].
The local response to tissue injury involves the production of a large number of acute phase proteins and cytokines related to innate immunity such as secretory Immunoglobulin A sIgA or inflammatory chemokines [ 930 ]. Secretory Immunoglobulin A sIgA is a first line of defense against external agents, serving as a noninvasive biomarker of mucosal immunity [ 10 ].
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Several studies have shown significant sIgA changes following strenuous exercise [ 31924 ]. Other important immune factors present in mucosal secretion also change after prolonged running [ 62024 ]. These changes include: pro-inflammatory chemokines, such as Gro-alpha neutrophil-activating protein 3 and melanoma growth stimulating activityGro-beta macrophage inflammatory protein, secreted by monocytes and macrophages and chemotactic for polymorphonuclear leukocytes and hematopoietic stem cells and MCP-1 to recruit Tabletid olgade liigestest, memory T cells, and Power Systems Glucosamiin Chondroitiin Arvustused cells to the sites of inflammation produced by either tissue injury or infection ; anti-inflammatory proteins such as Angiogenin associated with altered normality through angiogenesis and through activating gene expression that suppresses apoptosisAdipokine ACRP30 cell signaling protein secreted by adipose tissue involved in regulating glucose levels as well as fatty acid breakdown and Siglec5 Sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin 5.
Glycans a generic term for any sugar or assembly of sugars, in free form or attached to another molecule are directly involved in physiology [ 31 ]. Glycans are involved in inflammation and immune system activation [ 11 ].
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A standardized polysaccharide-based multi-ingredient supplement including glycans Advanced Ambrotose© complex powder AA may produce a significant overall shift towards an increased sialylation of serum glycoproteins. Sialylation changes can have a key role in many aspects Power Systems Glucosamiin Chondroitiin Arvustused the immune response [ 2 ].
It is therefore not surprising that one of the physiological effects of Power Systems Glucosamiin Chondroitiin Arvustused polysaccharides is the immunomodulation through the glycosylation of proteins [ 15 ].
Chondroitin sulphate mg Glucosamine sulphate, methylsulfonylmethane, bulking agent - microcrystalline cellulose, chondroitin sulfate, anti-caking agents: magnesium salts of fatty acids, silicon dioxide, filling substance - starch. The product may contain milk including lactosesoy, wheat, eggs, celery, mustard.
AA is a saccharide supplement containing a standardized combination of plant polysaccharides a source of mannose, galactose, fucose, xylose, glucose, n-acetyl-glucosamine, n-acetyl-neuraminic Power Systems Glucosamiin Chondroitiin Arvustused, and n-acetyl-galactosamine that may regulate immunity.
In controlled human trials, polysaccharide intake enhanced the immune system biomarkers in the blood of healthy adults [ 22 ]. The effect of dietary supplements with polysaccharides on retired professional football players supported and optimized their quality of life [ 25 ].
However, no data regarding the impact of AA supplementation on healthy marathon runners performing strenuous physical activity is available. Our hypothesis is that glycan supplementations before strenuous physical activity enhances immune function and balances pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory proteins.
Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the impact of AA in the levels of sIgA, pro-inflammatory chemokines and anti-inflammatory proteins before and after running a marathon in non-elite marathoners. In this study, 41 male non-elite runners of the Barcelona Marathon participated and they gave signed informed consent.
All runners were weighed on race morning within 2 h of race start in racing attire with running shoes and immediately after completing the race using the same scale Jata model.
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The mean age was The 41 athletes were selected for being homogeneous in age, weekly training hours, Power Systems Glucosamiin Chondroitiin Arvustused of training, weight and height Table 1and were randomly assigned into the two study groups. Table 1 Participant characteristics, anthropometric and training data before the marathon Baseline characteristics.